Political Revolt in Italy: Berlusconi's Long Hot Summer
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Italian language — Textbooks for foreign speakers — English. Italian language — Grammar.
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Cardo, Francesco, — II. E5P76 Contents 11 Talking about existence, presence and availability Contents Contents 35 Expressing result, effect and consequence Introduction Modern Italian Grammar follows an entirely new approach to learning Italian. It embraces a new way of looking at grammar — seeing it not as the ultimate goal, but as the tool with which we construct a dialogue or a piece of writing. Modern Italian Grammar is specifically designed to be accessible to the English reader not brought up in the Italian tradition of grammar and language analysis. It is unique both in its combination of the formal grammar reference section and the guide to usage organised along functional lines, and because it has been compiled by an English mother-tongue teacher of Italian and an Italian native speaker, working closely together.
It is the ideal reference text to use with newer language courses, for both beginners and advanced learners. The communicative approach emphasises language functions rather than structures. Traditional reference grammars present language by structure, making them inaccess-ible to learners who have no knowledge of grammatical terminology. Modern Italian Grammar presents language by function, with examples of usage and full explana-tions of how to express specific functions in Part B.
At the same time it retains the traditional presentation of language by structure in Part A, which illustrates language forms and grammatical systems in a schematic way: word formation and morphology, verb conjugations, tenses, use of conjunctions and verb constructions. We have expanded them to provide a richer variety of exam-ples more suited to our target readership. The division into functional areas also takes account of general linguistic notions, which can occur in more than one func-tion; these include notions such as presence or absence, time and space, cause and effect.
Notions and functions are integrated throughout Part B, while the structures illustrated in Part A are accessed through extensive cross-referencing. In our choice of examples, we have included as many different contexts as possible. Some examples are typical of everyday dialogue or writing; some have been taken from the press or television, others from contemporary texts. Our guides and inspiration in putting together this grammar have been some of the recognised authorities in the area of Italian grammar in the last decade or so: to them go our thanks and our recognition of the great debt we owe them: Anna-Laura and Giulio Lepschy The Italian Language Today, Routledge, ; Marcello Sensini Grammatica della lingua Italiana, Mondadori, ; Maurizio Dardano and Pietro Trifone Grammatica Italiana, 3rd edn, Zanichelli, ; Luca Serianni Grammatica italiana.
The last three texts in particular have departed from traditional Italian grammar terminology to some extent. In Modern Italian Grammar we too have made innova-tions both in terminology and in presentation. In many cases we have had to make choices, and there may be areas where our choices differ from those of our colleagues. One such area is terminology. In conclusion, we are conscious of the fact that our grammar represents the begin-ning of a journey rather than an end. We have had to find our own way, and make our own judgements, in an area as yet uncharted. We may have erred on our way, but hope we have not foundered totally.
We trust that our colleagues will be forgiving of any shortcomings. In this second edition of Modern Italian Grammar we have incorporated suggestions from readers and reviewers and updated the examples taken from the press, particularly in the later chapters, and the chapters on Writing, Oral communication, and Registers and style. Thanks also to our families in Oxford and Naples for putting up with the endless journeys back and forth.
Where possible, tables are used to illustrate forms and patterns. These structures are divided into four broad sections: I Giving and seeking factual information; II Actions affecting ourselves and others; III Expressing emotions, feelings, attitudes and opinions; IV Putting in context.
A final section, Section V Expanding the horizons, looks at special types of language, for example the formal register, bureaucratic language, and the language of telephone and letter. The table of contents at the front of the book shows the content of each section and chapter, for Part A and Part B. It is not in alphabetical order but set out according to the layout of the book. At the end of the book, there is a full index: grammar structures, communicative functions and keywords are all listed in alphabetical order, using both Italian and English terms.
In Part B, you will find all the different ways in which you can say what you want, with an indication of where you can find further informa-tion on the grammar structures used, and also references to related functions found in other parts of the book. If, on the other hand, you know the grammatical name for the structure you want to use, for example personal pronouns or impersonal si, you can look that up in the index instead. You will find each grammar structure explained in Part A. Part A is also useful as an easy-to-use quick reference section, where you can remind your-self of the correct form, or check on a verb ending, for example.
A glossary, which immediately follows this short guide, gives definitions of the grammatical terms used in the book, with examples. Note that throughout the book an asterisk is used to denote a form or wording that does not actually exist or is incorrect, shown only to demonstrate a point. Lastly, Italian and English keywords are indexed to make it easier for the reader to look up a particular point. Grammar terminology as well as Italian examples are xv We hope you enjoy learning Italian using this book as a guide.
Remember that some spoken skills such as pronunciation, intonation and stress cannot simply be learned from a book. But grammar structures are the foundation of any language, and this book will teach you how to use these structures to express what you want to say. Glossary Abstract noun One which refers to a concept or quality rather than a person or object. Adjective Adjectives describe or give information about a noun. Article Italian has three types of article: the definite article il, lo etc.
See also modal auxiliaries. Clause A clause is a section or part of a sentence that contains a subject and a verb. Complex sentences are made up of a series of clauses. The main clause or clauses is the part of a sentence that makes sense on its own and does not depend on any other element in the sentence. A subordinate clause always depends on another clause, and is often introduced by a conjunction such as che. Compound tenses Compound tenses are tenses consisting of more than one element. See also Simple tenses. Conditional The conditional is not strictly a tense, but a verb mood.
It can be used on its own, particularly as a polite way of expressing a request: Le dispiacerebbe aprire la finestra? The word conjugation is also used to mean the regular patterns of verbs ending in -are, -ere, -ire to which verbs belong. Conjunctions can either be coordinating, linking two phrases or clauses of equal weight, or subordinating, linking a main clause and subordinate clause. Countable A noun is countable if it can normally be used in both singular and plural, and take the indefinite article un, una etc.
Whereas an uncountable noun is one which is not normally found in the plural e. This pattern of endings is known as the declension. Definite article: see Article. Direct object A direct object, whether noun or pronoun, is one which is directly affected by the action or event. A direct object can be living or inanimate. Feminine: see Gender. Gender All nouns in Italian have a gender: they are either masculine or feminine, even if they are inanimate objects.
Gender is important since it deter-mines the form of noun, the article and adjective. See also Subjunctive. Impersonal verbs, verb forms Impersonal verbs or verb forms do not refer to any one particular person. Indefinite article: see Article. Indefinites An adjective or pronoun used to refer to a person or thing in a general way, rather than a definite person or thing. Indicative verbs The verb mood we use most in speaking and writing is the indicative mood.
The verb mood used to express uncertainty is the subjunctive, which also has a full range of tenses. See Subjunctive. Indirect object An indirect object, whether noun or pronoun, is one that is indirectly affected by the action or event. Interrogative Interrogative words are used to ask questions or indirect questions. Intransitive verbs See also Transitive verbs. Intransitive verbs are verbs that cannot be used with a direct object. Some intransitive verbs can be used with an indirect object: ho telefonato xx Some verbs can be used both transitively and intransitively see Transitive verbs.
Masculine see Gender. Mood The seven main ways in which verbs can express actions or events are known as moods. The four finite moods — all of which, except the imperative, have a full range of tenses — are: the indicative e. The other three moods are: infinitive, gerund and participle. Negative A statement is negative when it specifies an action or event that has not taken place or will not take place. Negative words or phrases turn a positive statement or ques-tion into a negative one.
Noun A noun indicates a person, place, thing or event. Nouns are inextricably linked to the articles il, un, etc. All nouns have a gender and this determines the form of the adjectives and articles that go with it. Number Number is the distinction between singular and plural. GLOSSARY Object In grammatical terms, an object is the person or thing affected by the action or event, as opposed to the subject, which is the person or thing responsible for it. See: direct object, indirect object. Participle present, past Verbs normally have a present participle and a past participle.
Unlike other finite verb forms, the participle cannot be used on its own but is found together with other verb forms. The present participle, less frequently used, changes form when used as an adjective i. Partitive article see Article. Passato remoto see Passato semplice. Plural see Number.
There are various categories of pronoun: demonstrative, such as hai visto quello? Question Direct questions sometimes use a question word dove vai stasera? Relative A relative pronoun introduces a relative clause, i. Reported speech This is also known as indirect speech and is a way of relating words spoken or written by someone else. Sentence A sentence must have a verb and a subject. It can either be a simple sentence one subject, one verb , e.
Simple tenses Those that are formed of one word only. See also Compound tenses. Singular see Number. Stem see Verb stem. With Italian verbs, it is not always essential to have a subject mentioned since it is understood from the verb form, e. Subjunctive The subjunctive mood is used to express doubt or uncertainty. It is almost always used in complex sentences where one clause depends on another e. However it can be found standing on its own, when used as an imperative form: vada via!
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See Clauses. Superlative See also Comparative. Occasionally the gram-matical verb tense does not correspond to the time setting — for example the future can be used for a present time setting: Sono le 4. Some verbs can be used both transitively and intran-sitively, e. Verb A verb describes an action, event or state. It always has a subject and can also have an object. Its form varies according to mood and tense, and the person, gender and number of its subject. In a regular verb the ending changes but the stem does not usually change.
In an irregular verb, the stem may change too. Voice Verbs normally have two voices: active and passive. The main function of nouns in any language is to denote an entity person, object, etc. Together they form a group of words called the noun group; two examples are shown below: una article grande adjective casa noun a big house la article ragazza noun inglese adjective the English girl Although the noun group may contain other elements e.
The noun The noun is the focus of the noun group, and in fact the article and adjectives always agree with the noun in gender masculine or feminine and number singular or plural. The two grammatical features of gender and number determine the form of noun, article and adjective. Gender All Italian nouns have either a masculine or a feminine gender. Gender is a purely grammatical term. Nouns referring to human beings or animals sometimes have the same grammatical gender as their natural gender, but not always see below.
Italian native speakers rarely find this a problem. With non-animate objects, there is not always an obvious explanation for their gender. Non-Italian speakers either have to learn and memorise the genders of words or consult a dictionary. Italian dictionaries usually indicate the gender of nouns with abbreviations such as s. Occasionally as in English a singular noun is used to refer to a collective entity that one might expect to be grammatically plural, e. On the other hand, some objects that are singular in English may be plural in Italian, e.
The noun 1. These patterns of endings are called inflexions. Italian nouns can be divided into several different groups, according to their patterns of inflexion. The three most common patterns also followed by most adjectives, see below are: Singular Plural 1 Masculine -o -i 2 Feminine -a -e 3 Masculine or feminine -e -i Note: Nouns in the third group -e have the same ending whatever the gender. Examples Singular Plural 1 Masculine tavolo table tavoli tables albero tree alberi trees sbaglio mistake sbagli mistakes ragazzo boy ragazzi boys 2 Feminine donna woman donne women parola word parole words scuola school scuole schools ragazza girl ragazze girls 3 Masculine padre father padri fathers studente student studenti students bicchiere glass bicchieri glasses 3 Feminine madre mother madri mothers occasione occasion occasioni occasions chiave key chiavi keys Note: In the plural, nouns ending in -co, -go; -ca, -ga; -cia, -gia present variations in their endings, as shown below.
Nouns ending in -ca, -ga Feminine nouns ending in -ca, -ga form their plural in -che, -ghe, with the hard c, g sound: amica amiche friend lega leghe league Nouns ending in -ca, -ga, which refer to either men or women, normally form their plural in -chi, -ghi for male and -che, -ghe for female and see 1. But note: belga Belgian belgi m. There is no difference in pronunciation between the -cie of camicie and the -ce of arance. Here are some other noun patterns. Masculine or feminine nouns with singular ending in -a Singular -a m. Plural -i m. Plural -e f. Masculine nouns with singular ending in -a Singular -a m.
See also masculine nouns ending in -ca, -ga above. Feminine nouns with singular ending in -o, plural in -i The two nouns shown below are both feminine in the singular, but differ in the plural: mani is feminine, while echi is masculine: Singular Plural mano f. See 1. Masculine nouns with singular in -o, feminine plural in -a A number of masculine nouns become feminine in the plural, with an irregular ending in -a: Singular m.
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Plural f. Plural in -i m. Plural in -a f. Invariable nouns Invariable nouns have the same form in the plural as in the singular. These include the following. There are two main types of article in Italian, as there are in English: the indefinite article articolo indeterminativo and the definite article articolo determinativo. They distinguish the generic from the specific, the known from the unknown see also 9. There is a dog in the garden. There is the dog in the garden. This applies also a third type of article, the partitive article.
The article 1. A partitive article can also be used in the singular, indicating a quantity of uncount-able things, people or abstract concepts: Vorrei del pane. Ho visto della gente che correva. I saw some people running. There is still some hope. Note: See also In the plural, they take the article le, which is never abbreviated.
Give me the toothpicks. Give me some toothpicks. Flavia wants to take her friend to the party. I would like the room we had last year. Flavia wants to take a friend to the party. I would like a room for tonight. The dolphin is a mammal. I like American films. There is a dolphin! Ho visto un bel film americano alla televisione.
These are only general guidelines. In many cases the use or omission of the articles depends on different linguistic habits. Some particular uses of the definite article In Italian we always use the definite article with the proper names of geographical features such as mountains, rivers, etc.
I love Italy. Brazil is world champion. I live in Italy. Andiamo in Spagna. We go to Spain. One lives better in southern Italy. But we do sometimes use it to refer to masculine or plural countries: Vivo negli Stati Uniti. I live in the USA. Instructors will suggest a variety of activities in which participants review the vocabulary and the grammar they have previously studied and apply their learning to new situations and contexts through literature, cinema and websites of interest. Conversation 3 is recommended following the two Advanced levels, where students are encouraged to promote independent exploration of Italian language and culture.
The course is designed mainly for professionals in commercial and economic fields doing business with the Italian market. Emphasis will be given to the teaching of a specialized vocabulary and the development of oral and written skills for business communication. The course will handle topics such as business terminology, common etiquette of the most common business situations, business letter formats, commercial invoice analysis, and trade catalogues requirements. This course is open to all levels and it does not assume any prior knowledge of Italian grammar for attendance.
The program focuses on different areas of the tourism sector and it consists of two parts: the first part aims at providing students with the basic vocabulary and expressions that are most often used while travelling through Italy. The second part of the course introduces students to a geographic overview of the country and to the most important tourist attractions museums, castles, exhibitions and archaeological sites , accompanied by a description of the public transport system.
The lessons will include case studies from daily situations — e. Morning Schedule classes available upon request, please contact us! The teachers at the Vancouver Italian Language School are native speakers with university qualifications and experienced in teaching Italian as a second language.
In Montreal, Cecilia had the chance to teach Italian as a second language to manifold passionate second and third generations of Italian immigrants. Cinzia Candela Bicego is a teacher and an actress. She studied Journalism Radio television at I. Cinzia then studied with prof. Alberto Paolillo and Prof. Verdi with the LyberaMusica string orchestra and performed in other theatrical productions. She was a student of Prof.
Italy is not only my Country but represents an entire style of life. I love speaking about it, and I believe this love transfers into my passion for teaching. I think that only through being able to speak Italian will you be able to truly understand this country to its fullest. I studied and worked in China for two years where I met my Canadian husband and moved to Vancouver in I truly enjoy helping my students to achieve their goals, and when goals become successes, these are also my successes.
I think that a good teacher should be fun, kind, patient and enthusiastic, and I try to bring these things to all my classes. I was born in Canada to Italian parents.
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Grew up in a vibrant Italian-Canadian community in Metro Vancouver while spending the summers at my family home in the Veneto region. I teach French Immersion and Spanish with the Vancouver School Board and I am always excited to share my love of Italian language and culture through storytelling with students attending courses at the Chamber of Commerce.
I worked for several years In Italy as Human Resources Manager in different international and multinational companies. In I was ready for new professional challenges and I embarked on a new career: teaching and promoting the Italian language and culture abroad. In the meanwhile, I have worked as an Italian teacher in classes of young adults, as a tutor for Executives and in classes dedicated to women within a Charity Association.
I believe that such Program will provide an enhancement of my educational skillset thanks to an innovative educational approach and focus on educational curriculum theory, research and practice. Teaching Italian is my true passion. What I love is not just to teach the Italian language, but to accompany everybody who is passionate and motivated in a journey throughout our special Italian world of which our language is the most evident expression, albeit not the only one. I moved to Vancouver from Italy in November , but I have never actually left it; on the contrary, my attachment to my birthplace has grown since then.
Being far away in a very different country made me realize the beauty of a culture whose biggest strength is diversity, stemming from two common factors: harmony and elegance. I am originally from Lecco Lombardy a small and quiet city at the foot of the Alps, facing a lake that resembles a fjord. To teach languages is, in my opinion, to open doors to new paths and encounters. This is what I have experienced as a student, and it is for this reason I now deeply enjoy sharing my knowledge of Italian culture with my students, as well as with my kids.
In he moved to Vancouver where he worked as a teacher of Italian language at the Italian Cultural Centre and in an elementary school as an assistant teacher. Her first passion is theatre and she has worked for several years in the field. In the last few years, she worked in Milan in different NGOs helping overcome cultural diversity conflicts and volunteered as a social and legal assistant for inmates. In mid she moved to Vancouver where she works as an Italian teacher at the Italian Cultural Centre.
Here she discovered her love for teaching while sharing the wonderful Italian culture and language. Sara started to teach Italian at the University of Tennessee as volunteer for adults and young students. I am very happy to continue to teach and help students who are interested and love the Italian language and culture. She had presented several well received lecture series at the former Italian Institute of Culture on various aspects of the ancient Roman world.
Life took me many places before I settled in Vancouver, Canada. Throughout my career as a language instructor, I have emphasized a multidisciplinary approach, focusing on the ever-evolving everyday contexts of Italy. My aim, whatever the level of instruction, is to promote understanding of the current aspects of life, culture, travel in Italy. With my students, I have always tried to impart knowledge of and ability in the language, while sharing direct experiences of Italy and what it is to be Italian and be amongst Italians. A special flair, an atmosphere, a taste, a sound: a new and vibrant world that opens up when you learn our language.
My love for languages began at a very young age, when contrarily to all my peers, I decided to study French instead of English. I eventually added the latter as a third language in High School, and then Russian in University. I hold a Master Degree in Translation from the University of Genoa and languages have always been the core of my everyday life. I love helping people overcome language barriers and successfully communicate, and I do that through both my profession of translator and teacher. What I love about teaching is that it allows me to learn a lot about other cultures, while sharing the love I feel for mine.
I was born in the small region of Molise and then moved to the north of Italy Emilia-Romagna at the age of There I started to teach Italian to young refugees and to hold seminars about human rights in high schools and other non-formal educational settings. Students choose our school because:. Paper Online Step 1. Caro Eugenio, ho una splendida notizia da darti: ho finalmente trovato un lavoro! Faccio la commessa in un negozio di libri usati.
Lavoro dalle Quando non ci sono clienti da servire posso leggere o navigare su Internet. E tu come stai? Ti trovi bene a Milano? Come vanno gli studi? Quando vieni a trovarmi? Baci e abbracci, Lisa. Ho un ricordo del primo anno di scuola media. Il mio professore si chiamava Murabito, era una brava persona, preparato, coscienzioso, ma non era popolare. Tutti noi invece correvamo a sentire le lezioni di un altro professore giovane e vivace che ci leggeva l'Eneide.
Prima la spiegava, o meglio la rappresentava in italiano, poi recitava dei versi in latino e tutti lo ascoltavamo estasiati. Non era un semplice docente, era un attore, un maestro, un leader. Una atmosfera che ho sperimentato nei laboratori di psicologia a Milano, di sociologia a Parigi, a Chicago.