Ils ont entendu un vent qui soufflait fort "fou, fou …". Bii la bugulume. L'enfant murmure. Jeune plante d'arbre. Young plant of a tree. L'eau sort de la terre. The water gushes out of the ground. Elles apprennent la danse "boula". Il porte sa daba. He carries his hoe. He harvests millet. L'arbre grandit. He crossed the water. Ba buut ki-pook. Ils traversent un champ de mil. They are crossing a millet field. He used stones to hit himself and he cried. Il ne boira pas. He hit me. He consulted a diviner. Si tu te calmes, si tu vas doucement en toute chose, Le tanneur a ramolli la peau.
The tanner softens the leather. They went to calm him down. Devine ce que j'ai dans la main. They draw to choose the one who will go. Il est doux. He is soft. Les semences germent et sortent. The seeds germinate and appear. Il a mis son habit dans la teinture bleue. Bonne chose. Good thing. They went to see what happened. Leptadenia hastata. L'enfant est confus. D - d da1 tense. Ne tue pas le mouton! He bought it. He pushed the wall and it fell.
The wind blew strongly. Je suis venu avant-hier. I came before yesterday. Quel jour est-il venu? N'en fais pas de soucis. The house owner. Et votre fatigue d'autre fois? That day in the evening. We cook the meat always very thoroughly. Maybe he can help us. He will leave the day after tomorrow. Il est venu avant-hier. He came the day before yesterday. Ces jours. These days. After some days …. Ce n'a pas fait semblant. Il va dans un lieu aride. He goes to an arid place. Ah, to say the truth straight, gold is good. Go to the town beside the road. She spread out millet to dry it. Ce est mon appartenance.
The goats are in a hurry advancing each other to drink water. He first binds the strong and then takes his belongings. I am ahead of you. He existed already. What has been written about me, the time of its accomplishment has already arrived. You earn money but attention disease are certainly there too.
Il n'a pas pris. Les enfants sont en train de jouer. The children are playing. He was sitting at the tax reception house. He on whom the stone falls will be crushed. And it surprised all of them. Il y avait un homme. King Saa reigned for a long time. Il nourrit les poules avec de la bonne nourriture. They shamed him. Your studies are spoiled like that. Ils binent le mil. They are weeding the millet. On ramasse de la terre et l'entasse autour de la plante de mil. They heap up earth around the millet plant. Toutes ces choses nous aident ou elles nous font du mal? All those things help us or do us damaged.
The name of God was exalted. That is why I brought him here. Il leur a dit de l'amener chez lui. He told them to bring him to him. Comment se suit le temps de l'enseignement. Ils n'ont pas pu l'accuser faussement devant les gens. But they could not accuse him wrongly in front of people. He lifts himself up.
Mba conduit la voiture. Sa plaie lui fait mal. Les danseurs s'amusent. La femme est en train de cuisiner la nourriture. Nettoie la maison. What is this? Je devrais les boire tous. I should drink them all. C'est qu'ils craignaient les gens. It is that they were afraid of people. Les enfants sont en train de nettoyer les assiettes. Je suis un Koussasi. Nous sommes des Koussasi.
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Il faut que vous fassiez attention. Awinpoka married Asaa. Elle cherche son enfant. He is looking for his child. They wanted to trap him by seemingly something bad he might say. The hawk flays and goes into the wilderness. Personne souffrante. La femme cueillir les feuilles de baobab. Je bouge la table jusqu'au milieu de la case.
He moved towards the goat. Soyez nombreux et remplissez la terre. Finim buguma. Evente le feu. They follow the traced lines and farm quickly. When a donkey sinks to the ground they cut its tail off. Il a pris son eau et a bu un peu. G ga' v. Il a ouvert la porte. Le malade se tend et est raide. Paroles amusantes. Vous dites que vous savez mieux. You say you know better. A very large number of people gathered.
Mais il y avait trop de travail pour Marthe. But there was too much work for Martha. Ce sont des hommes vraiment costauds. They were really strong men. Il est sur le toit. Ecoutez pour comprendre le sens. Ils ont. I have not found a defilement that deserves his death. Jetropha curcas. This is not a problem. Il a rompu le pain en morceaux. Tu viendras dans deux jours. Quand le soleil s'incline, Ils sont sous les arbres. They are under the trees. Il est sous le baobab. He is under the baobab tree. Bii la gbilim ya'at. Il a repris encore.
Le chiot est venu ronger son pied. They scrape off the millet. His blood stopped running. Si vous calculez l'argent du bois que vous achetez, Il a mis le fourneau entre les jambes pour se chauffer. L'eau entoure la maison. The water surrounds the house. C'est cela qui a fait que le cou de la tortue est tordu. She will bother me and get me tired. Mon enfant est muet. Robbers pressurized him taking off his cloths. Acacia hockii. Il a tordu le fer. He looked upwards to the sky.
They walk around with big garments. Le sang coule sans cesser.
French-English Dictionary (35, Entries)
Blood is dropping without stopping. Acacia macrostachya. Ils attendent la voiture. We cannot protect ourselves. Restez ici et veillez. Stay here and watch. Et tous les animaux sont venus les entourer. And all the animals came and surrounded them. Comme ils lui ont fait du.
Il leur a. I wanted to gather you tidily like a hen gives security to its chicks under her wings. Attends et je viens. Wait I am coming. La femme porte l'enfant de son amie. H ha1 adv. Ne t'en fais pas de soucis. Cet homme a tellement de force. Haya, ka ba gaat. Alors ils sont partis. Ha, ha, ha l'or est bon? Ha, ha, ha gold is good? K ka1 conjunction. There was a man and he was blind. C'est combien de moutons que tu as? It is how many sheep that you have?
Il avait une vache, mais elle est morte. He had a cow but it died. But why did you not obey him? Laisse, car Dieu aussi le sait. Leave it, then God also knows about it. He reached home and ate. Birds don't sow or harvest, yet God feeds them. And Jesus did not accept that someone follows him, except Peter and James.
He went to visit the field.
Les chiens mangent des miettes qui tombent par terre. Dogs eat crumbs that fall to the ground. Ramasse les habits. Gather the cloths. Simon Dictionnaire. Il y a quelqu'un? Is there somebody? Frappez, et on ouvrira pour vous. Knock, and they will open to you. Crataeva adansonii. La puissance qu'il a lui permet de faire cela.
The power that he has makes that he can do this. On judging each other. The land is far, thus the okra grows coarse. Senna siamea. It is not good to chase away his wife. Demain quand il fait. Laisse-le partir. The younger child chews [sour] figs and it twists the elder heart. Permets au gens d'aller en ville. Allow the people to go into town. The goat also got ready to run away. They harvested the millet.
Il n'y a pas du tout de la place. At that time the old woman was not there. L'habit n'est pas dans la caisse. Je ne suis pas chef. Tu peux avoir la force, mais manquer d'intelligence. He has to deny his will.
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A cow has eaten away the top of a plant and thus shortened it. Il tremble de peur. She ladles porridge for them. Lui seul est venu me voir. They sell two little birds for two small money coins. Scirpus cubensis. Ils ont l'autorisation de le manger ou bien de le vendre. They can eat it or they can. Sweat resembling drops of blood fell on the ground. Water drowns Mr. Il a construit un petit mur pour entourer le puits. He wiped off the dust on his feet. You cannot be God's servant and at the same time love riches. Qui m'a fait ce mauvais tour?
Ils sont venus pour tester M. They came to test Mr Tii. A blind person is not older than the one who guides him. First born son. Il est encore un enfant. Il ne restera pas. Restez bien. They hardened their hearts. Many people made an effort to write what happened among us. It is not a matter of simply going in daytime and take her home. Son mari est encore avec eux. Mc Her husband is still with them.
Son enseignement est. If he doesn't stir himself, the man will take the chieftaincy. A man is not related to a monkey. Don't take the eye off. His message spread in the whole environment. Make business with this money till I come back. They dig a bit some holes to water the place. Il lui a dit de rentrer. Petite colline. He came at five o'clock. Khaya senegalensis. He won't sow sorghum. Il ne boira plus de dolo.
He won't anymore drink beer. Has a scorpion ever got at you. They judged him and concluded that he has to be executed. Robbers attacked him and beat him seriously. L la1 var. Cela est long. C'est large. En ce moment vous ne comprenez pas. Right now, you don't understand. Il est venu aussi manger. When he went, Si c'est ainsi, viens ici. Donc descends pour que je monte sur le cheval. Pierre suivait de loin. Peter followed at a distance.
Et ses yeux se sont ouverts. Ceci est un canari. Toutes ces choses j'ai fait depuis mon enfance. All these things I did since my childhood. Lequel est plus facile que je dise au paralytique? Bo ka ba maan lane kis la. Pourquoi font-ils ce qui est interdit. Lanna ke c'est pourquoi; therefore. C'est pourquoi ils n'ont pas eu le temps pour manger. Therefore they didn't have time to eat. C'est pourquoi je vous dis que, Quand le soleil chauffe, When the sun warms up, They sent him back with empty hands.
Na'aba lem be. Il y avait aussi un chef. Il y avait une femme. Mouille la nourriture avec de l'huile. Instead my father's horse is there. He licked his hands. Ximenia americana. Personne ne verse du vin nouveau dans des anciennes outres. Nobody would pour new vine into old flasks. Unripe sweet corn. Negotiation for a wife starts like that. The girl herself will dodge the wall. Da sak ka ba liibe ya!
That is why we want to tell you that C'est pourquoi il est venu. Enfant, va regarder en cachette comment elle est. Child , go and look hiding how she is. Enfant, va le regarder en cachette. Quelqu'un qui a le SIDA peut contaminer beaucoup de gens. Des maladies contagieuses terrifieront les gens. Contagious diseases will terrify the people. You can escape what is going to happen. Coin de la chambre. M m1 comparer: mam. Je cherche mon livre. I am looking for my book. Donne-moi la nourriture.
C'est froid. Ce n'est pas froid. He dipped his finger into the water and moistened my tongue. L'homme ne vit pas de nourriture seulement. Humans don't live from food only. Herbe verte. Hi doesn't hear. They were pondering on some way to kill him. Bonne sauce. Il a fait un sacrifice pour Dieu. Nettoyer le champ est son arrangement. Cleaning the rubbish is fixing your field. Nowadays, nobody is any more dependent on somebody else. Satan tente les gens. Cela ne finira jamais. Ton habitude de voler ne finira jamais. Your stealing activities will never stop. La soupe est bonne.
Ce n'est pas bon. Ils sont contents. It made us very happy. La femme a aussi vu le fruit de l'arbre. Na'ap me da be. Il y avait une fois un chef. Once upon a time there was a chef. He doesn't even have a slip. When a bat eats Shea tree fruits he blames the kukparing-tree. The truck crushed him.
Be careful not to speak to anybody about me. Beware, don't tempt God. He sucked a mango. He kissed her. Elle Dictionnaire. This year we have a lot to of food. He failed at the test and wept. Il utilise ton nom. Va aller prendre du feu. Go and bring some fire. They took the man before the chief. On l'a fait venir de force. Another insisted saying: ' No doubt, this man was with him '.
N -na1 n. Mon appartenance. My thing. Yim na. Sors vers ici. Trois mois. Ils le respecteront. He has compassion on the leper. Il est au palais cour royale. He is in the palace chief's house. Naa, m na'abaa. Mes respects, mon roi. The graves are level with the ground. Elles ne pourront pas finir de semer dans un seul jour. He cried again with a loud voice and then died. Si j'avais un cheval, je serais. On aurait pu vendre cela.
They could have sold it. Il a assez de force pour cultiver. Dis-nous en quel temps que de telles choses vont se passer. Ma, manam. Awinne et consort les Awinne. Awin and his people. Un bon positionnement est le lancement. Ainsi il est encore en chemin. Nous n'avons pas encore vu cela. We have not yet seen this. Ils respectent le riche. Needle is small by nature, not for lack of steel. Crescentia cujete. Il faut qu'il vienne. Ce ne convient pas.
Il se tait. He shuts up.
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Laissez les enfants venir chez moi, ne les chassez pas. Il est un chef. He is a chief. They took off the garment they had dressed him with and put on his own garment. The tree that you cut is a dawadawa tree. Cent et vingt et deux cent vingt-deux. Hundred and twenty five. He shouted saying; He cut the meat with a knife. Even though I don't have money, I will go to the market.
Il serait plus facile pour un chameau d'entrer par une aiguille. It would be easier for a camel to go through a needle. Dieu a fait le jour de repos pour l'homme. God made the day of rest for man. Prenez cela et mangez. Take this and eat. This is my child. Ceci est ma maison. This is my house. Un jour le matin, Voici un arbre. They gave her the garment for free. That the suffering of your fathers was not in vain. Dans le kapokier. Boota ni. Dans le grenier. Tiis la ni. Parmi les arbres. Ne suivez pas ces gens.
Don't follow these people. Instantly he knew that power went out of him. Il fait. He killed the cow with an evil eye. When the cattle enter into the garden of somebody, it's a devastation. Certains gens disent qu'il ne pleut plus bien. Certain people say that it does not rain well any more. My respect to you Atii who is a good person. On a fait sortir les policiers pour attraper les voleurs.
Deux fois. Two times. De nombreuses fois j'ai voulu vous rassembler. Numerous times I wanted to gather you. Exactly at the day of farming. Pterocarpus erinaceus. Simon pronounced a blessing on them. Nous fertilisons notre champ et il devient tendre et mou. We fertilize our field and it becomes tender and soft. Water the cows. She told her child off. Hare said oh is that so! C'est lui qui est mon cadet. C'est lui qui serra devant.
It will be him that is in front. P pa adv. Nous pouvons rester ici quelques jours. Prend les herbes et frappe ainsi "bum, bum, bum". He locked the room. Faites attention que personne ne vous trompe. Put it down, perhaps he will come. The day arrived. Il n'y a pas de place. La parole de. They take away the oil on the surface. Cela ne. If the money isn't enough, I will pay you at my return. They developed and became rich. Un fusil immense. Sa'a pela.
He got angry with them. The storm agitates the water. The fowls pick up the newly sown grains. Les microbes. Elle est en train de laver des habits. The partridge. He looked at him straight into the eyes. He took off his shoes. Si nous produisons souvent d'enfants cela sera comment? I put a ring on my finger. Ah, his heart beats piu piu He cracked the peanuts.
Il a promis de lui donner tout ce qu'elle veut. We fertilise the field so that the cereals grow well. Rotten thing. Le mil pousse bien et a l'air de bien. That is the oath he made with our ancestor. I know that the rainy season has approached. She was bending and couldn't stay up straight. The chicken entered the henhouse and are saved from cold. La nourriture leur manquait. Dieu pardonnera quelqu'un qui m'offense. God will forgive somebody who offends me. She pounded ingredients and cooked a good sauce. Ils ont mis une tige de mil sur la case. They can ask them to come and help them farming.
The time for the child's shaving has arrived. He drank alcohol and does not even know whether God exists. They know already in advance whether she wants them or not. Allez dans la ville. S sa1 adv. They throw out the nets since the night. He hoed since eight days. Their mind is suited to more exalted deeds.
Very little is known about his life, but we have numerous indications that he had social and literary ambitions—in addition to his religious career—and he gained a certain measure of success in these arenas. Clair and Maassen 1. We do know that Du Bosc sought the women of the Court to be his benefactresses. It is not surprising, then, that Du Bosc would engage the querelle des femmes and show women in a positive light.
However, unlike De Sales, who instructs on questions of personal piety, Du Bosc focuses exclusively on manners and morality for women and, by extension, men in society. Unlike the majority of religious thinkers of his time, Du Bosc believes women to be as capable as men of making moral choices, and thus proceeds to reason with them. Thus, to propose that women think for themselves and even feel pride in their accomplishments was a controversial assertion for the time.
He therefore refuses to give explicit instructions to women, because, in his view, they are capable of making good choices on their own:. By reasoning with women, he argues, we show respect for their reasoning abilities and display our confidence in their conduct. In fact, French women had taken matters in their own hands by organizing women-centered literary salons; they participated in group writing projects, called salon writing, and even began publishing more widely, albeit, for the most part, anonymously or under another name DeJean Du Bosc makes a key point in the first volume:.
Indeed, Du Bosc chastises those who would deprive women of proper learning; he warns:. According to Du Bosc, women must read in order to inform their natural reason and introspection, which will then inform their conversation.
Indeed, his own arguments might be seen as examples of the sort of reasoning in which he wants his readers to engage. Typically, Du Bosc presents both sides of an argument and then ends by advocating moderation. In the case of reading, for example, he begins by encouraging the practice; then restricts the activity severely citing St. Du Bosc concerns himself very much with appearance: he cites the example of the appearance of vice in the relationship of Socrates to Alcibiades:.
The kind of love that Socrates felt for Alcibiades is regrettable, Du Bosc notes; even more regrettable, however, is that the philosopher was indiscreet and this appearance of vice enabled his neighbors to talk about him. She does not need a spiritual guide, for, through learning and knowledge, she can guide herself morally and understand better the consequences of her actions.
From Theory to Practice: The Nouveau recueil de lettres des dames de ce temps. Du Bosc targets elite worldly women, who might frequent the Court, salons, or socialize in le monde. In addition, Du Bosc shows us women using their powers of reason to judge the world and act morally. On the whole, it is unclear how many women are a part of this writing group, or if there are indeed several groups, and no identifiable personalities emerge through the style or content of the letters.
The reader knows only that the collection stages the correspondence of a dense network of women devoted to writing each other. Thus, the reader is left with much confusion about who these women writers actually are and must instead focus exclusively on their words. In this series of 96 letters, the overwhelming majority are written by women to other women only five are written to men ; the first thirty-four letters are coupled with a response to the initial letter except in two cases and Letters 35 to 65 stand alone with no response included. Thus, it is not surprising that these letters reflect the language of patronage found in contemporary correspondences.
The letters do far more than compliment, however; they demonstrate how to negotiate properly elite social relationships through correspondence. She became what A. The letters of the Nouveau recueil are replete withthe language and topoi found in published courtly letters of the time. The missives themselves serve to strengthen social bonds during prolonged absences by keeping the friend present in the memory of her benefactor. If letter writing is a new cultural ritual for women, it is perhaps not surprising that the anonymous correspondents of the Nouveau recueil express frequent anxiety about the appropriateness of their epistolary practices and their wish not to inconvenience their correspondents.
Within the letters, the women fret about whether sending a letter will be seen as an imposition or a gift; whether they can demand letters of others; or whether they should despair over the lack of news from a good friend. In fact, many of the women try to gauge just how often to write others. These fictional women frequently express the concern that their letters may not be eloquent enough to please. While a pose of modesty was necessary for women displaying their social skills, letter writing, as a new medium of communication used to cement the bonds of friendship or patronage, must have genuinely made many women nervous as they attempted to ingratiate themselves to others.
In letter 5, a lady writes:. In addition to eloquence, Du Bosc expects the gentlewoman to be able to judge for herself and reason gracefully with others. Indeed the first fifty-six of ninety-six letters are paired letters and responses which debate two sides of an issue. The two perspectives are left open-ended; no correct stance emerges. The ladies of this collection debate questions such as whether one is less troubled to be stupid or wise letter and response 2 ; whether it is just for a young man to marry an older woman letter and response 3 ; whether one should entertain the company of free thinkers letter and response 10 ; or whether a woman should be learned letter and response 12 , , , , respectively.
Other discussions revolve around questions of social judgment such as what is the appropriate kind of company to keep letter and response 16 ; how to judge a good book letter 60 ; how to judge a friend letter and response 1 ; or whether it is preferable to live in the country, city, or at Court letter and response 8, letter 7, letter and response 31 , , , , , , respectively.
Numerous letters allude to the difficulty of socializing with others who do not share their social practices. Reading, writing, and reflection come into conflict with the traditional rules of civility and conformity for women. The imperative to conform may make it dangerous for a learned woman to display the qualities admired by her friends in Paris. She reasons these men are worse than bad books, for at least one can put down a bad book when it gets tiresome. In the response, Du Bosc offers a corrective to this desire to withdraw from society to the company of books.
Her friend reminds her she must take care of her reputation by avoiding public scandal or disapproval. She must endure her guests to maintain her good reputation. While letter 12 defends women who study, the correspondent in the response cautions:. Women who reason about what they have learned in books are seen as displaying fragments of purloined goods that could never be their own. What set the feminist writers apart was their advocacy of widespread ennoblement.
If existing rank did not confer virtue, existing virtue in the feminist view should confer rank. Significantly, letters 32 and 65 that broach the topic are both addressed to Mademoiselle only 9 letters in total address a Mademoiselle. In Letter 32, a woman responds to her cultured friend who laments her own lack of wealth. Indeed, she does not disdain riches; rather she believes that no matter how virtuous she is, she will be at a disadvantage in society without it.
Indeed, what sets the Nouveau Recueil apart from other epistolary collectionsis its vision of female solidarity. A Modern before his time, Du Bosc promoted both a feminocentric space for women and the discursive practices—reading, conversation, letter writing—that would propel them to the center of the literary public sphere for the next century and a half. Rather, he proposes a way for elite women to perfect themselves for social interaction through the practices of reading, reflection, and conversation.
Altman, Janet Gurkin. Bonneau-Avenant, A. Paris: Didier, Bury, Emmanuel. Paris: Presses universitaires de France, Chapelain, Jean. Paris: Imprimerie nationale, Chartier, Roger. Paris: Flammarion, Cohen, Michele. London: Routledge, DeJean, Joan. New York: Columbia UP,